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The Science and Technology of Tomorrow


The Science and Technology of Tomorrow

Today the majority of our energy comes from fossil fuels we find beneath the earth in the form of cool natural gas and oil We've seen a rise in renewable energy, but fossil fuels are still the main source and without them the economy would collapse But these are going to become harder and harder to find and extract in the efficient way Which way I'll turn the forms of energy are going to take over Solar is one alternative That's becoming more and more popular although it is more expensive to get power from solar energy Currently the cost of fossil fuels is going to rise and the cost of solar is falling once equilibrium is met market forces will do the rest and note that solar cells are actually not that efficient so to engineering options are to make them more efficient or Reduce the cost to make and install these in bulk these are two directions that research has gone Wind is another popular form of energy.

 But it will not be what supplies the bulk of energy for the world in the future I mean it can only work when the wind blows and they can only generate so much during this time But there's a form of energy that doesn't supply any of our electricity or power right now because science is not there yet But if we figure it out it could solve all energy problems and that is nuclear fusion, and this is hopefully what the future holds a fusion is what the Sun uses to create energy, but first. Let's make a very important distinction We have nuclear power plants right now, and when you hear about these and nuclear energy This is usually all reference to nuclear fission.

This is where uranium atoms are split and when they're split They create a lot of energy that we can use and send out to homes and businesses And this is good because when you do that You don't create greenhouse gases, which is good for the environment of course? So why don't we just have nuclear power plants? Well one big thing is they leave behind a lot of nuclear waste a typical reactor can create 30 tons of nuclear waste a year that can remain radioactive for millions of years This is so dangerous that we have to keep them in special cooling ponds this makes nuclear power plant meltdowns also Catastrophic and there have been some in the past such as Three Mile Island or Chernobyl nuclear fusion is different though It's about Fusing two atoms instead of splitting one and these are normally hydrogen atoms where the two things you see on the left are just isotopes of hydrogen and this releases a lot of energy.

 This is also much safer than fission, but achieving. This is not easy to do Imagine this you have two cars each with very strong magnets on them They have the same magnetic pull, so they repel each other, but there's some latch Where if you do manage to get the cars close the latch holds them together so powerfully that they don't come apart This is one big obstacle of fusion hydrogen atoms repel each other a lot until they get Extremely close hence when the Sun is able to create nuclear fusion their gravity so intense, but here on earth It's a different story.

 But again when you do fuse two atoms it releases a ton of energy in fact fusion releases ten million times more energy than gasoline pound-for-pound an eight ounce glass of water contains the energy of 500 thousand barrels of petroleum And we could potentially harness the issue of fusion power is it's hard to do though No one has created an operating fusion power plant and scientists all over the world are trying to unlock this potential energy source in the US there's the National Ignition facility where they have over a hundred giant laser beams that fire down a tunnel and Focus on a small pellet sending it to around 100 million degrees which releases the power of fusion in France at the International thermonuclear experimental reactor.

 They create a thin ring of plasma that is trapped due to a magnetic field then they heat it using several methods Which starts to cause the plasma protons to start fusing? There are many other experiments out there are big labs, and if you're looking to go into a field like physics This is something you could potentially do now one last thing about fusion is that we've done it in fact sown it at 14 years old and it can be done for around three thousand dollars just Getting the right equipment So why isn't it powering your home right now because these experiments have all been net negative It took more energy to fuse the atoms than was released I mean big experiments using things like giant lasers And those take a lot of power and the fusing of atoms need to create more.

 This might not come up for another few decades But considering this method of energy will be safe produce more energy than any other source be cheap and not harm the environment People are hopeful for it to become reality for soon Now let's move on to superconductors If you ever thought about having a car that can hover above the ground and travel well over a hundred miles an hour While using minimum fuel this might be our best Just remember that most of the fuel in your cars used to overcome the force of friction on the road if the road was Perfectly smooth ice and you could get up to speed you could just cruise to your Destination that is assuming the path was completely straight though, but you get the idea, and this is where superconductors come in over 100 years ago we found out that mercury loses all electrical resistance aka becomes a Superconductor when cooled to just four degrees above absolute zero or four Kelvin this means electrons can move around freely with no friction Unlike in your electronics that get hot due to that friction High-temperature superconductors have also been discovered since then but quote high temperature means like 138 Kelvin or minus 135 degrees Celsius so a problem with just getting and keeping a material as a Superconductor is we need to have a serious cooling system to maintain those temperatures .

This is why scientists are looking into room-temperature superconductors That would change the world but currently they do not exist although we can easily see what they will do for Example when it comes to transmission lines to deliver power to our homes up to 30% of electricity generated is wasted due to friction in The wires which also means electrical power plants need to be closer to our homes That's increasing the danger of nuclear power plants, but with superconductors those losses disappear and our electric bill goes down significantly Room-temperature superconductors would also be capable of producing super magnets that can lift cars or even trains above the ground and this is due to How magnetic field lines bunch up since they cannot penetrate a superconductor this creates a cushion that can hold up the object in the future we might have roads made of Superconductors allowing cars and trains to hover above the ground with such little friction that even a breeze could get them started there currently are magnetic levitation trains that use magnets to hover but the economics of these have prevented them from being adopted all around the world and superconductors might change all of us Last century was considered the age of electricity that made new technology possible Superconductors may soon open up the age of magnetism .

Also when it comes to energy one thing they're considering is space-based solar power where hundreds of satellites in orbit would absorb radiation from the Sun and almost all hours of the day, and then send it down to earth But the trouble with this is that would be very expensive Prices that need to go down which brings us to the future of space travel Here's a rocket. This is a Space X rocket. I randomly chose to show, but when it comes to rockets in general typically by mass They're like 80 percent fuel 16 percent actual rocket and the rest is the payload which goes right here in the top This payload might be a satellite going into space that will provide safe government communications Or it could be supplies for astronauts at the International Space Station It's normally the purpose of the launch so yes the actual cargo of the rocket is a very small part of it volume wise So why I Rockets so big? 

Well because they need to hold a lot of fuel and why is this because the Rockets have to go fast Remember going into orbit is not expensive because of how high you have to go It's because of the speed the rocket needs to get to plans can already go fairly high But they go 600 miles per hour or 965 kilometres per hour Rockets need to go like 18,000 miles per hour or about 29,000 kilometres per hour to actually reach orbit and that costs more money now for most of history Rockets were launched into space and their multiple stages were burned up or landed in the ocean and never used again And this is one reason why it costs around 10 thousand dollars on averages into pound into space one thing being worked on a change this is Reusable rockets if it cost a hundred million dollars for a company to build a rocket then some company wants to put their satellite in Orbit it'll cost them more than a hundred million in order for a profit to be made But if the rocket can be launched 10 times or something it could cost 20 million dollars per lunch and profit would still be made Space X is one company You've probably heard of that's made these we're their first stage or the lower part of the rocket is Detached during flight and comes back .

Thus saving the money from having to make a totally new one? Now this was oversimplified because the entire rocket is not reusable only certain parts are plus You got to refurbish the used rocket as it. Just went into space, so it's not like it's all good to go back immediately It needs to be fixed up a bit But there are other methods being looked at or that have been trying to get things to space cheaply You could try and launching the rocket from higher up Using powerful lasers to propel the rocket and one very famous idea is the space elevator at A certain height above Earth objects in orbit will be in geostationary orbit Which means they orbit at the same rotational speed that the earth is spinning at? This means objects in that orbit are always above the exact same location on earth So imagine having something in orbit like that and you attach a really long cable from that object to earth and tied the cable so It's fixed or just imagine those white and red lines are just long cables, then it would all rotate together Now to put something in orbit It would literally just need to go up the cable like an elevator from basic math or physics.

 We know the actual speed something in rotation is moving at is the radius of its motion times the angular velocity or basically a multiple of rotations over time Omega is always the same as Earth's angular speed and unchanging But if you increase the radius or distance from the center of rotation by going up the elevator you increase your velocity Which again is the thing you need to truly get to orbit, but this takes way less power Now engineers and scientists still need to figure out the material.

 That would be used for such a cable plus of course there are many concerns with how long it would need to be safety concerns and more, but who knows what the future has in store when it comes to this Cheaper access to space would mean more potential for a moon base as well as a base on Mars Average people who aren't billionaires might be able to go to space in the future Also, this will allow for asteroid mining we're using equipment.

 We could collect various elements that are found in asteroids such as carbon water silicon and metals like iron and nickel These could have economic benefits here on earth through selling these materials however It is assumed that these elements will likely be used to continue to settle space and increase how fast we explore the solar system Now there are of course so many more technologies that will be here in the future that didn't talk about Some include the driver less car will you'll be able to drive a car while at the same time Doing things like going on the internet through the use of your contact lenses or glasses in Nanotechnology one of the big goals would be to put nanobots in our bloodstream that constantly Patrol for diseases or abnormalities to keep us healthy.

 Another, holy grail of this field is making nanobots that can assemble anything we need where you basically put in raw material to a machine And the nanobots can just make what you want by taking apart the raw material molecule by molecule 3d printing is also a big field where for example General Electric is used and  3d printing may also get to a point where we all have a 3d printer and people share files on the internet that you can Download and just use to 3d print something you need Entrepreneurs might make money off of making and selling these files that 3d print something unique and are useful for consumers.

 There are also be applications and printing organs to remove danger from transplants and plenty more To make this video I gathered information from various books such as physics of the future Astonish rise to the robots and a few more which all gives so much more detail on all these fields that just going to get into I'll provide a link below to the major prep Amazon store where you can find all those books plus some more of my favorites if you're interested in buying and supporting the channel and Lastly before I go one reason for this video is people asking me What fields of science or engineering? Will and won't be around in the future and it's safe to say that not many people know what will happen We could only make predictions I mean petroleum engineering will probably go down significantly as alternative energy becomes cheaper.

 But right now petroleum jobs are increasing. It looks like space travel will not go away and with it getting cheaper Maybe they'll open up more opportunities for aerospace engineers It seems safe to say that computer engineers software engineers and computer scientists. Have a safe future for now considering How much is going into software programming data storage artificial intelligence and so on? 

Physicists and even materials engineers might get more job opportunities as funding for superconductors is increased considering It will have a huge impact on the economy if nuclear fusion becomes a thing we'll still need electrical engineers to handle all that electricity distribute and plenty of other scientists and engineers to maintain the plants You can see how some industries could die but others will be born it's more important that you stay Knowledgeable on future technologies and have a broad knowledge of them while also a deep level of knowledge in your field. 

This way you can prepare for any changes not be blindsided by big shifts in the industry For those going to college students unlikely any big field especially of engineering or science will die in the next few years in Fact according to the statistics most engineering fields are growing Yes Some don't have nearly as much job Opportunities as others so make sure to do your own research on that I can only tell you so much But hopefully this is a start now. I'm gonna end that video here again Links are below, and if you like the video don't forget to comment like and subscribe and I'll see you all next time .

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